ZrO2 (CAO) and ZrO2 (1 / 2O3) are the two most commonly used ceramic materials for zirconia based solid electrolyte. Because zirconia is difficult to sinter, an appropriate amount of stabilizer needs to be added. In the stabilized ZrO2, the metal ions of the stabilizer are not equivalently replaced with Zr4 +, resulting in oxygen vacancies. For example, taking Ca2 + as an example, when Ca2 + replaces Zr4 +, there are two less positive charges. Therefore, an O2 ion in the normal position must be lost around Ca2 + in order to maintain the electrical neutrality of the lattice, thus creating an oxygen vacancy. Similarly, if you replace Zr4 + with Y3 +, there is one less positive charge, and there is an oxygen vacancy around the two yttrium ions. Therefore, there are a large number of oxygen vacancies in the stabilized ZrO2 lattice, making ZrO2 Ceramics conductive ceramics. The conductivity of ZrO2 Ceramics with different stabilizers is different.